Northern Cyprus, officially known as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), is a self-declared state in the northern part of the island of Cyprus. It is recognized only by Turkey and has not been internationally recognized as a separate state.
The division of Cyprus occurred in 1974 when Turkey invaded the island in response to a coup by Greek Cypriots aimed at unifying Cyprus with Greece. The Turkish military intervention led to the actual division of the island, with the northern part coming under Turkish control while the southern part remained under the control of the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus.
Turkish Cypriots, who are primarily of Turkish origin, established the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus in 1975, which later became the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus operates as a parliamentary democratic state with a presidential system. Its capital and largest city is Nicosia (known as Lefkoşa in Turkish).
Despite lacking international recognition, Northern Cyprus has its own government institutions, including a president, parliament, and legal system. It has its own currency, the Turkish lira, and heavily relies on Turkey for economic, political, and military support.
Efforts to reunify Cyprus have been ongoing for decades, with numerous negotiations and peace talks held between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities, supported by the United Nations and other international stakeholders. However, a comprehensive settlement has not yet been reached, and the island remains divided.